Categories Of Physical Exercise

5:45 AM Posted by Lilian

There are 4 categories of physical exercise:

1) Aerobic exercise - Refers to exercise that involves or improves oxygen consumption by the body. Aerobic means "with oxygen", and refers to the use of oxygen in the body's metabolic or energy-generating process. Many types of exercise are aerobic, and by definition are performed at moderate levels of intensity for extended periods of time.

To obtain the best results, an aerobic exercise session involves a warming up period, followed by at least 20 minutes of moderate to intense exercise involving large muscle groups, and a cooling down period at the end.

Varieties of Cardiovascular Exercises:

Indoor (stair climbing, elliptical trainer, indoor rower, stairmaster, stationary bicycle, treadmill)
Outdoor (cross-country, skiing, cycling, inline skating, jogging, nordic walking )
Indoor or outdoor (kickboxing, swimming)

2) Anaerobic exercise - Is exercise intense enough to trigger anaerobic metabolism. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to build power and by body builders to build muscle mass. Muscles trained under anaerobic conditions develop differently, leading to greater performance in short duration, high intensity activities, which last up to about 2 minutes.

There are two types of anaerobic energy systems, the ATP-CP energy system, which uses creatine phosphate as the main energy source, and the lactic acid (or anaerobic glycolysis) system that uses glucose (or glycogen) in the absence of oxygen.

3) Strength training - Is an execise that applies resistance to muscular contraction to build the strength, anaerobic endurance and size of skeletal muscles. There are many different methods of strength training, the most common being the use of gravity or elastic/hydraulic forces to oppose muscle contraction.

Types of Strength Training
  • Weight and resistance training are popular methods of strength training that use gravity (through weight stacks, plates or dumbbells) or elastic/hydraulic resistance respectively to oppose muscle contraction. Weight training provides the majority of the resistance at the initiating joint angle when the movement begins, when the muscle must overcome the inertia of the weight's mass (however, if repetitions are performed extremely slowly, inertia is never overcome and resistance remains constant).
  • Resistance training is a form of strength training in which each effort is performed against a specific opposing force generated by resistance (i.e. resistance to being pushed, squeezed, stretched or bent). Exercises are isotonic if a body part is moving against the force. Exercises are isometric if a body part is holding still against the force. Resistance exercise is used to develop the strength and size of skeletal muscles. Properly performed, resistance training can provide significant functional benefits and improvement in overall health and well-being.

    The goal of resistance training, according to the American Sports Medicine Institute (ASMI), is to "gradually and progressively overload the musculoskeletal system so it gets stronger." Research shows that regular resistance training will strengthen and tone muscles and increase bone mass.
  • Isometric exercise, or "isometrics", is a type of strength training in which the joint angle and muscle length do not change during contraction. Isometric exercises are opposed by a force equal to the force output of the muscle and there is no net movement. This mainly strengthens the muscle at the specific joint angle at which the isometric exercise occurs, with some increases in strength at joint angles up to 20° in either direction depending on the joint trained. In comparison, isotonic exercises strengthen the muscle throughout the entire range of motion of the exercise used.
  • Integrated training is a comprehensive training approach that strives to improve all components necessary to allow an athlete to achieve optimum performance. These components include: 1. Integrated Flexibility Training; 2. Core Stabilization; 3. Balance Training; 4. Reactive Training; 5. Integrated Speed Training; 6. Integrated Resistance Training; and 7. Nutrition and Sports Supplementation.
4) Agility - is the ability to change the body's position efficiently, and requires the integration of isolated movement skills utilizing a combination of balance, coordination, speed, reflexes, strength, endurance,and stamina.

Sometimes the terms 'dynamic' and 'static' are used. 'Dynamic' exercises such as steady running, tend to produce a lowering of the diastolic blood pressure during exercise, due to the improved blood flow. Conversely, static exercise (such as weight-lifting) can cause the systolic
pressure to rise significantly (during the exercise).

Breathing
Active exhalation during physical exercise helps the body to increase its maximum lung capacity. This results in greater efficiency, since the heart has to do less work to oxygenate the muscles, and there is also increased muscular efficiency through greater blood flow. Consciously breathing deeply during aerobic exercise helps this development of the heart and lungs.

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